Part II on Sri Lanka’s Crocodiles: Behavioral traits of an apex predator

The temperament between the two species has been known to vary; while Mugger crocodiles have been observed to show a lighter temperament (due to being more social), the Saltwater crocodile has been observed to display a more aggressive temperament, owing to its territorial nature. Both crocodylians however, are known to be man-eaters.

Picking up from our last piece on Sri Lankan crocodylians, the following blog shares insights to the traits of our apex reptilian predator in hunting its prey and attacks on humans. Having existed virtually unchanged for the past 100 million years, the Saltwater (‘salties’) and Marsh (‘Mugger’) crocodiles that are found in Sri Lanka have been identified over recent years to display traits distinct to each species.  Continue reading “Part II on Sri Lanka’s Crocodiles: Behavioral traits of an apex predator”

Sri Lanka’s Crocodiles: insights to Marsh and Saltwater Crocodiles

Often referred to as the closest living creature from the period of dinosaurs, crocodiles date back some 230 million years, and have existed virtually unchanged for the past 65 million years. Lead researcher Dinal Samarasinghe gives us insights in the first of our series covering these ancient reptiles.

Often referred to as the closest living creature from the period of dinosaurs, crocodiles date back some 230 million years, and have existed virtually unchanged for the past 65 million years. Leading crocodile researcher Dinal Samarasinghe gives us insights in the first of our series covering these ancient reptiles.

Continue reading “Sri Lanka’s Crocodiles: insights to Marsh and Saltwater Crocodiles”

Yala with the Kids: A guide to the most fun your child can have in our jungles

This October, Sri Lanka observed World Children’s Day, and to celebrate, we’ve got a kid’s stay free offer on for the entirety of our value season in 2018, to give you more reason to book in a holiday safari with your child.

We often get asked if safaris are suitable for children under 12, and quite simply, it is! This October, Sri Lanka observed World Children’s Day, and to celebrate, we’ve got a kid’s stay free offer on for the entirety of our value season in 2018, to give you more reason to book in a holiday safari with your child. Here are some of our best tips and activities when staying at our camp with children.

Continue reading “Yala with the Kids: A guide to the most fun your child can have in our jungles”

ROAMING LONERS: INSIGHTS TO MALE ELEPHANT BEHAVIOR IN SRI LANKA

Two male elephants in Yala, named Humpy and Nelum, shadow each other over a period of months, but are careful to not make any contact or acknowledgement of the other. They turn up in the same grasslands and water holes, yet it’s as if a purposeful avoidance of the other is in place.

The first in a 12-part series touching on the unique characteristics of the island’s nomadic land giants.

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A tusker approaches two bull elephants, what happens next is intriguing

With tourists in their thousands flocking to Minneriya to catch sight of the great elephant gathering, we wrapped up September by taking the alternative route, like we usually do, seeking out the land’s largest mammals at lesser known Kaudella and Kala Wewa National Parks, the latter of which is home to the island’s highest density of tuskers.

We had the privilege of having Environmental Scientist and Elephant Ethologist Sumith Pilapitiya with us, and the following piece sheds some interesting insights to characteristics of high ranking Asian male elephants.

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Built in 307 B.C., Kala Wewa is a wonder of primeval hydraulic engineering set against the magical and stunning backdrop of the Ritigala Mountain Range.

Breaking away 

Male Elephants are non-confrontational beings if unprovoked, adhering to a strict code of a natural hierarchical order to maintain the peace, and, they are wanderers from adolescence. Branching out between the ages of 12 to 15 years, a young male elephant begins a lifelong journey, largely alone or in temporary male groups, except when a female is in estrus when he mingles with a herd, which take him from one mate to the next, with the main objective of fathering as many offspring as it possibly can in its 60 or 70-year life span.

Friend or Foe?

Two male elephants in Yala, named Humpy and Nelum, shadow each other over a period of months, but are careful to not make any contact or acknowledgement of the other. They turn up in the same grasslands and water holes, yet it’s as if a purposeful avoidance of the other is in place. Pilapitiya is certain of a history between the two, perhaps a past relationship or a family link, but as far as evidence goes, they remain complete strangers who share the same landscape.

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The bull swims away from his friend, leaving him to spar with the tusker in musth in the waters of Kala Wewa in the Kala Wewa National Park. Bull elephants, especially when confronted with another in musth, opt to back away than risk a confrontation.

FACT: 

  • The probability of a male elephant in musth raiding agricultural crops is greatly reduced (despite the bull’s testosterone hike of 5-6 times the norm) as its focus shifts from food, to finding a mate.

Ancient rules apply today 

Pilapitiya’s research confirms that abiding by the ancient structures of hierarchy, allows only the strongest and most experienced males to dominate lower ranking bulls which gives them a distinct advantage during mating.  The dominance hierarchy among males can be overturned, occasionally, if a lower ranking bull in musth challenges a higher ranking non-musth bull.  These confrontations can sometimes end in death of a bull. This was evident in Yala National Park recently, when a high ranking, but non-musth tusker named Thilak was gored to death by a lower ranking single tusker in musth.

The state of musth confers an advantage during mating as estrus females prefer to be mated by large musth bulls. The musth male guards the estrus female and mates with her several times during her estrus period of four to six days. Towards the end of her estrus, the bull loses interest in her and moves on in search of the next receptive female, leaving the female to raise the calf by herself with help from her herd. “Males leaving their natal herd and their ‘loner’ behavior,” Pilapitiya speculates, “is nature’s way of limiting inbreeding.”

But that isn’t to say male elephants spend their non-musth time in complete solitude; It’s a good a time as any to catch up with male peers; sparring only with other males, especially those known to them, akin to old mates meeting at the bar, as seen in bull herds, as the males we caught on camera in Kala Wewa.

Life as an elephant – simple as breathing, hard as death, the joy and the sadness of being alive. Nothing was ever easy for them. But nothing was ever as strong, either. 

ABOUT SUMITH PILAPITIYA

Sumith Pilapitiya was formally Lead Environmental Specialist for the South Asia Region of the World Bank and former Director General of Wildlife Conservation in Sri Lanka. He has personal research interests in elephant conservation and addressing the human elephant conflict and has been working on elephant social behavior in Yala National Park and the surrounding landscape. 

 

 

Guest Blog: Sloth Bear Sighting

Guest Blog: How to get a great bear sighting in Yala — patience and skill to navigate away from the crowds!

Our friends and bloggers “Traveling Teacherz” visited us at Kulu camp for a few days and below is their account of a special bear sighting while on safari with us. All picture and video copyright are owned by them. Check them out at www.facebook.com/travelingteachrz www.youtube.com/travelingteachrz Make sure to scroll to the bottom of this blog post to watch the entire video! 

 

It was our last day of safaris, and we decided to go to Block 1 for this morning’s safari. We had seen a fish eagle hunting and herds of elephants grazing.

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We had also seen a huge variety of birds, including Indian paradise flycatchers.

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We were specifically hoping to see a sloth bear, even though we knew sightings were more common in April or late March, and it was only the beginning of March.

By mid-morning, we drove up to three other jeeps who had caught sight of a sloth bear in the bushes. Our driver got us in the best position to see into the bushes, and we caught a glimpse of the black fur as the bear walked around inside. We were not able to capture it on camera. We waited for a good 30 minutes before several other jeeps pulled up. We realized that the sloth bear may never come out of the bushes, even if we could hear the sticks breaking from him walking around. We decided to leave for other viewing opportunities.

After driving around for another hour and seeing plenty of elephants and mongoose, our guide got word that the sloth bear had come out from the bushes. We drove in a hurry back to that area, and saw many other jeeps in queue.

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However, the sloth bear made an appearance by walking around some of the jeeps and heading right toward our jeep!

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He lumbered slowly with his toes pointed inward and head low to the ground. We had our cameras ready, and steadily followed his movement toward us. I captured the top-down view as he passed right next to the right side of the jeep.

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I moved to the back of the jeep to continue filming and lost a shoe in the process! I was beyond enraptured in the moment; shoes were a much lower priority. The sloth bear paused to lift his leg, and excrete a small pebble, then he kept walking down the road. Eventually he made a turn into the trees. We were thrilled about our chance to see a sloth bear in the wild!

 

A sloth bear zig zags his way around jeeps and down a dusty road:

Guest Blog: Epic Leopard Sighting

A guest’s account of leopard hunting monkeys up in a tree ~ while on safari with us in the Yala National Park!

Our friends and bloggers “Traveling Teacherz” visited us at Kulu camp for a few days and below is their account of an amazing sighting while on safari with us. All picture and video copyright are owned by them. Check them out at www.facebook.com/travelingteachrz www.youtube.com/travelingteachrz Make sure to scroll to the bottom of this blog post to watch the entire video! 

A young leopard chases monkeys in a tree

In order to avoid crowds, we requested to visit Block 5 for most of our safaris. We were on an all-day safari, and we had already spent time that morning being utterly amazed by the animals we saw around every corner. We watched elephants munch and cool off in the heat of the day, and by lunch time we were ready to cool off and eat, too. We stopped at the river, enjoyed a swim, and ate some tasty rice and meat. We relaxed there for a while, until the heat of the day passed. Then, we got back into the jeep and made sure our cameras were all ready to go.

We had been on a couple drives without catching a glimpse of a leopard, and the anticipation of seeing one was causing us to listen intently for alarm calls. Nearly 15 minutes after leaving the river, we heard alarm calls from langur monkeys. Our guide carefully tried to follow the sound, and we drove around the area for a couple minutes. The sound intensified, and we knew we were close! Everyone in the jeep was on high alert.

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We spotted the beautiful young leopard lying in a small clearing of trees. She seemed to be enjoying the shade, and she was laying down with her legs stretched out and her head up watching us.

The monkeys were right above her in the trees, screeching their alarm calls. She ignored there calls at first, but, after a little while, she seemed agitated by them. We watched her gaze follow the monkeys as they jumped around in the trees. Suddenly, she made a quick move to get up, and she positioned herself at the base of one tree.

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In a few short leaps, she was up in the trees, chasing the monkeys around! We heard lots of rustling and more screeching, and we lost sight of her at one point. 
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Then, a minute later, she was coming back down the tree, seemingly content to have scared off the monkeys.

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Once down the tree, she lumbered toward the bushes across the road, walking right in front of our jeep. We were the only jeep in sight. We watched as the leopard casually walked toward the bushes, then she seemed to catch movement and got into a crouched position. Within seconds, she was off chasing something in the bushes, and that’s the last we saw of her. Our anticipation had been met with a special sighting, in which we enjoyed without any other noise or jeep queues! It was truly a memorable experience.

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